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The Pseudo-Democrat's Dilemma
14,90 CHF *
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Why did election monitoring become an international norm? Why do pseudo-democrats—undemocratic leaders who present themselves as democratic—invite international observers, even when they are likely to be caught manipulating elections? Is election observation an effective tool of democracy promotion, or is it simply a way to legitimize electoral autocracies? In The Pseudo-Democrat’s Dilemma, Susan D. Hyde explains international election monitoring with a new theory of international norm formation. Hyde argues that election observation was initiated by states seeking international support. International benefits tied to democracy give some governments an incentive to signal their commitment to democratization without having to give up power. Invitations to nonpartisan foreigners to monitor elections, and avoiding their criticism, became a widely recognized and imitated signal of a government’s purported commitment to democratic elections. Hyde draws on cross-national data on the global spread of election observation between 1960 and 2006, detailed descriptions of the characteristics of countries that do and do not invite observers, and evidence of three ways that election monitoring is costly to pseudo-democrats: micro-level experimental tests from elections in Armenia and Indonesia showing that observers can deter election-day fraud and otherwise improve the quality of elections; illustrative cases demonstrating that international benefits are contingent on democracy in countries like Haiti, Peru, Togo, and Zimbabwe; and qualitative evidence documenting the escalating game of strategic manipulation among pseudo-democrats, international monitors, and pro-democracy forces.

Anbieter: Orell Fuessli CH
Stand: 27.10.2020
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A critical analysis of Vygotsky and Piagets the...
15,90 CHF *
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Seminar paper from the year 2013 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Linguistics, University of Sindh (Institute of English Language and Literature), language: English, abstract: Linguists with the collaborations of Psychologists have presented various theories of cognitive development and language learning since the time unknown, these theories have influenced the learners' learning behavior in a particular area over a specific time when a particular theory was in force. These theories were not only followed but many of them empirical tested and tried which finally allowed the Linguists and Psychologist to impose them, simultaneously some of them were not empirically tested (Krashen's Monitor Model) but remained in the practice due to their immense worth and importance or reliability among the linguists and educators in the cognitive set up. Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky (1896 - 1934) and Jean Piaget (1896-1980) were 20th century contemporary philosophers and psychologists, they presented their theories for the child's cognitive development, however their theories were entirely different and opposite to each other except very little agreement, they exert a tremendous influence over the schooling environment of children. These theories were not only practiced but also remained in force time to time. Vygostky was Russian psychologist who died earlier at the age of 38, due to tuberculoses but he has written more than 100 articles and books, Vygostky's major work remained in Russian language (until its translations in 1960) but some of the translations are available now, Vygostky wrote about language and thought, cognitive and learning development, psychology of art and educating the students with special needs.

Anbieter: Orell Fuessli CH
Stand: 27.10.2020
Zum Angebot
A critical analysis of Vygotsky and Piagets the...
12,99 € *
ggf. zzgl. Versand

Seminar paper from the year 2013 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Linguistics, University of Sindh (Institute of English Language and Literature), language: English, abstract: Linguists with the collaborations of Psychologists have presented various theories of cognitive development and language learning since the time unknown, these theories have influenced the learners' learning behavior in a particular area over a specific time when a particular theory was in force. These theories were not only followed but many of them empirical tested and tried which finally allowed the Linguists and Psychologist to impose them, simultaneously some of them were not empirically tested (Krashen's Monitor Model) but remained in the practice due to their immense worth and importance or reliability among the linguists and educators in the cognitive set up. Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky (1896 - 1934) and Jean Piaget (1896-1980) were 20th century contemporary philosophers and psychologists, they presented their theories for the child's cognitive development, however their theories were entirely different and opposite to each other except very little agreement, they exert a tremendous influence over the schooling environment of children. These theories were not only practiced but also remained in force time to time. Vygostky was Russian psychologist who died earlier at the age of 38, due to tuberculoses but he has written more than 100 articles and books, Vygostky's major work remained in Russian language (until its translations in 1960) but some of the translations are available now, Vygostky wrote about language and thought, cognitive and learning development, psychology of art and educating the students with special needs.

Anbieter: Thalia AT
Stand: 27.10.2020
Zum Angebot
The Pseudo-Democrat's Dilemma
12,90 € *
ggf. zzgl. Versand

Why did election monitoring become an international norm? Why do pseudo-democrats—undemocratic leaders who present themselves as democratic—invite international observers, even when they are likely to be caught manipulating elections? Is election observation an effective tool of democracy promotion, or is it simply a way to legitimize electoral autocracies? In The Pseudo-Democrat’s Dilemma, Susan D. Hyde explains international election monitoring with a new theory of international norm formation. Hyde argues that election observation was initiated by states seeking international support. International benefits tied to democracy give some governments an incentive to signal their commitment to democratization without having to give up power. Invitations to nonpartisan foreigners to monitor elections, and avoiding their criticism, became a widely recognized and imitated signal of a government’s purported commitment to democratic elections. Hyde draws on cross-national data on the global spread of election observation between 1960 and 2006, detailed descriptions of the characteristics of countries that do and do not invite observers, and evidence of three ways that election monitoring is costly to pseudo-democrats: micro-level experimental tests from elections in Armenia and Indonesia showing that observers can deter election-day fraud and otherwise improve the quality of elections; illustrative cases demonstrating that international benefits are contingent on democracy in countries like Haiti, Peru, Togo, and Zimbabwe; and qualitative evidence documenting the escalating game of strategic manipulation among pseudo-democrats, international monitors, and pro-democracy forces.

Anbieter: Thalia AT
Stand: 27.10.2020
Zum Angebot